The Development of Integrated Sea Use Management (Routledge Advances in Maritime Research)
Integrating stakeholder knowledge, views and needs in marine or maritime spatial planning MSP processes is important from a governance and social sustainability perspective both for MSP practitioners and for the evolving field of MSP research. Transboundary MSP appears particularly challenging for participation, which is why it is important to identify opportunities and address obstacles for stakeholder integration in this specific context. This article examines how stakeholder integration is currently practiced in the Baltic Sea Region BSR , an enclosed sea where policy coherence and addressing conflicting interests across borders are especially relevant.
It synthesises a range of challenges and enablers for stakeholder participation and mobilisation that have emerged from two transboundary MSP research and development projects, BaltSpace and Baltic SCOPE. The article finds that with the exception of statutory authorities, stakeholder engagement in the BSR is mostly limited to self-motivated stakeholders and consultation rather than more inclusive forms of participation.
This can reduce the quality and legitimacy of MSP processes and risks to concentrate power in the hands of a small group of actors. For transboundary stakeholder integration to become more interactive and effective, five types of challenges need attention, regarding a timing, b governance systems, c capacity and processes, d stakeholder characteristics and e knowledge and language. These obstacles can be addressed by 1 a dedicated research and development agenda that critically reflects on integrative tools and processes, and 2 by encouraging transnational institutions in the BSR to devote more resources to transboundary stakeholder integration and adopt flexible and adaptive strategies and tools that can facilitate stakeholder involvement throughout the MSP policy cycle.
Marine 12 environmental management within the UN system is of byzantine complexity.
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The research and observation programmes aim to fill the existing knowledge and data gaps, and improving the rather low predictive capability of the marine sciences for managing the oceans and seas, and their resources Richardson and Poloczanska For this purpose, the end users of the programmes need to be adequately involved in their design, development and implementation. Management programmes for regulation of maritime 13 traffic and its environmental impacts have been rather successful McConnell However, this cannot be said for the multi-facetted programmes dealing with marine pollution control, integrated management of coastal areas and, in particular, the management of fisheries Beddington et al.
In spite of agreements and rules, there are many coordination problems and conflicts between the organizations involved in ocean and sea use management. Each agency basically pursues its own programme and defends its mandate. The efficiency of the UN system has been questioned with cause, but despite its shortcomings, the UN system will continue to play a central role in the environmental protection and the resource use management of the oceans and seas United Nation At the European level, there is no single policy or set of policies to manage the marine environment.
Instead, there is a complex web of interacting and overlapping policies that leave significant problems unaddressed. By better integration of the different marine-related activities, a more coherent maritime policy should be created among marine-oriented policy areas, such as fishery, transport, environment, energy, industry, defense and science policies. By the development of the maritime policy, the European Commission has established a maritime policy function, which aims to coordinate socio-economic issues related to the sea with marine environmental issues Farmer et al. With time, MSP has emerged as one important coordinating instrument for marine and maritime planning and management, and to achieve ecosystem-based sea use management Douvere ; Farmer et al.
This strategy contributes to a more efficient implementation of EU: s environmental legislation in marine and coastal waters. Several member countries already have or are now introducing MSP instruments for marine waters under national jurisdiction.
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The Marine Directive fills a gap in EUs environmental policy, which was earlier focused on land and freshwater issues. However, it should be noticed that both the environmental and maritime policies aim at governing the marine environment. They differ in focus between economic and ecological aims, and have different stakeholders and different ways of setting rules Van Hoof and Van Tatenhove There were clear tensions between the two directorates regarding the ambitions on blue growth and productive seas on one hand, and healthy and clean seas on the other EEA It remains to be seen whether this will create a more coherent maritime policy in practice.
Today, many environmental and other NGOs have observer status under the major international agreements, including the EU Princen and Finger Occasionally, they exert decisive influence on marine-related policies and practices of individual countries.
At a national level, most countries still lack a coherent integrated policy for marine and maritime affairs. In most governments, there is a strong sector-oriented division among the different ministries, where different inter-ministerial coordination problems also are reflected in the cooperation between subordinate sector-authorities Browman and Stergiou The most obvious shortcoming of international organizations and national authorities is the fragmentation and lack of coordination between different programmes and institutions.
This applies particularly to the feeble governance, including the failure to address their interlinked environmental problems in an integrated way and the weak influence on impacts from land-based activities. The existing institutions and structures charged with the coordination of national marine environmental policies are in many cases too fragmented, and deal with the problems as sectoral issues, rather than as part of a coherent national marine policy Brown et al.
This applies to marine sectors such as fishery, logistics, environment and energy.
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As an example, there is a long history in almost all areas of the world of conflict and lack of cooperation between environmental and fisheries management agencies on what should be protected in a MPA—the ecological value of a strictly protected area or the economic value of a protected area regulated or open for fishery or a wind power establishment? Kearney et al. The relationship between agencies responsible for the management of the environment and shipping interests is similar.
These institutions have their own sector legislation, and usually lack adequate authority to regulate and enforce environmental policies, or to influence national economic strategies, on which ultimately the protection and the development of the marine and coastal environment depends Coleman et al. These are many and governed by different authorities, which usually are highly interdependent. Even in the few countries where such programmes do exist, they are fragmented, managed in an uncoordinated way and implemented in a permissive manner Frank The implementation of internationally adopted environmental action programmes and agreements requires action at the national level Abbott and Snidal Another important initiative is the Regular Process.
Yet another example of fruitful cooperation and coordination in marine environmental management is between the EU and the regional seas conventions and other international bodies, the Bremen declaration HELCOM b. However, when EU Directives e. The EU has strengthened the role of the regional marine commissions for those EU Members, who are also Contracting Parties to the commissions.
Marine and maritime management is by tradition characterized by sectoral management Crowder and Norse ; Douvere and marine managers have always had limited impact on land management in coastal areas and river basins. In deciding on the appropriate balance between environmental and development goals, marine and maritime managers need knowledge from many disciplines, such as sociology, engineering, political science, law, economics and ecology.
It is essential in order to understand management constraints and provide a nuanced description of the factors that contribute to the outcomes in these systems, for instance, regarding the sustainable use of marine resources Ostrom and Cox ; Epstein et al. However, the sectoral management and decision-making have not been sufficiently coordinated and integrated across various political and sectoral interests. Little consideration have been taken of how efforts to attain a goal in one sector would affect, or be affected by, efforts in another sector, or whether the total demand for key resources could be met by existing supplies without degrading the resource base and underlying ecosystems.
There is today an emerging paradigm shift in ocean management, towards consideration of the impacts of all ocean sectors on the marine environment, both separately and in aggregate. This comes from an increasing awareness of the cumulative effects of human activities on the ecosystems, and increasing resource and user conflicts over sectoral and political boundaries. Measures for improved marine and maritime management require the development, use and implementation of national legal frameworks, including instruments such as MSP and ecosystem-based management, as well as cooperation through and support by international organizations.
This, in turn, requires a responsible coordinating authority function that can take care of, investigate and shed light on problems that are related to several different marine sectors or areas of responsibility. Also, the function need to provide the research needed to back up proposed measures for solving the identified problems DSH In practice, it means the continued development and actions for a more holistic, cross-disciplinary, transboundary coordinated and as appropriate integrated approach to the use and protection of the seas and the adjacent river basins.
Today, this need of cooperation and coordination receives serious attention in ocean governance and is highlighted in most marine international frameworks Carneiro ; Valman , for instance:. In recent years, the strong developments in marine technology have contributed to increased public and media interest in the marine environment and underwater life, including web-based social networks.
This has increased the public awareness of and concern for the marine environment Voyer et al. Today, the involvement of a more informed public, including NGOs, in how the marine environment is managed, has increased the pressure on concerned international organizations and responsible national authorities on how our oceans and seas are managed. International and national marine environmental governance need well-functioning organizations and legal frameworks as a basis for action and in support of responsible and effective marine and maritime management by individual countries, as emphasized in the following:.
Future marine and maritime management needs even greater emphasis on international cooperation through well-functioning multilateral organisations. This, requires relevant mandates by national governments to take on board global or regional processes, expert roles and normative frameworks;.
However, to make it effective, present shortcomings of the system have to be resolved and realistic global, regional and national maritime policies with clear targets and timetables need to be developed and agreed upon. In this respect MSP, ICAM and ecosystem-based management—if properly developed, legally implemented and effectively enforced—are management instruments that can contribute to a more coherent, multi-sectorally coordinated management of the use, conservation and protection of the marine and coastal environment and its resources, including freshwater catchments;.
Beside the global, legal and institutional frameworks for ocean affairs the importance of regional organisations and conventions within and outside the UN system has grown as bases for action.
International Maritime Transport: Perspectives (Routledge Advances in Maritime Studies)
The regional programmes and their Contracting Parties are closer to the problems. They can often deal more effectively with the regional specificities, capabilities and perceived priorities, for instance, regarding measures to reduce pollution and establish marine protected areas;. Although the assessment capacity is strong in many regions, there is a clear need to develop greater expertise and infrastructure around the globe in the technical aspects of marine assessment. Not least, there is a need to develop new and more consistent ways to value environmental goods and services, and internalize such valuing requirements in sector legislation Kill ; and.
The further development of the underwater marine technology facilitates opportunities to increase information and communication on the marine environment its problems and values. I am grateful to Ragnar Elmgren and Lena Kautsky for constructive comments on this paper.
Also, I want to thank Sven Blomqvist for guidance and valuable discussions on the manuscript. His interest includes conservation biology, and marine environmental planning and management. The Swedish territory, out to the territorial boundary, is divided into municipalities. It means that the responsibility of a coastal municipality covers coastal waters out to the territorial boundary. A soft law you can agree on, but need not necessarily follow.
It aims to take into account both the environmental and social contexts and thus provide a more integrated management methodology Convention on Biological Diversity COP 5.
It is based on an adaptive, collaboratively developed vision of desired future conditions that integrates ecological, socio-economic, and institutional perspectives, applied within a geographic framework, and defined primarily by natural ecological boundaries. It has developed more recently for the marine environment Millennium Ecosystem Assessment One of the major concerns of marine research is the preservation of marine ecosystems.
The objective is to use the LME concept as a tool for enabling ecosystem-based management to provide a collaborative approach to management of resources within ecologically bounded transnational areas. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Ambio v. Published online Nov Kjell Grip 1, 2. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Impressive numbers of global and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations are working in the field of the marine environment and its resources. Keywords: Convention, International organization, Marine, Planning and management, Sustainable development.
Introduction The seas and coasts are increasingly being used both to provide the basics of life and for commerce and recreation. Growing demand puts increasing pressures on the resources of the oceans and on governments to act, but short-term needs often limit their ability to adopt and implement effective long-term solutions Measures against marine pollution or other threats to the marine environment will be more efficient if several countries work together, rather than each country is acting on its own Abbott and Snidal They cover a wide range of: Research programmes designed to improve our knowledge and understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes that form the basis for maintenance and functioning of marine ecosystems, including social and economic developments and interactions with the atmosphere and the land; Monitoring and assessment programmes designed to monitor the status of the marine environment, including its resources and the changes taking place in the environment owing to natural and anthropogenic causes; and Management programmes designed to ensure the rational management and use of the seas and their resources.
Cooperation: the action when organizations are working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit. Coherence: a logical, orderly and consistent relation of different parts of for instance a strategy or policy addressed by several organizations. Open in a separate window.
Overarching legal and institutional frameworks of the sea Most of the global and regional marine programmes are carried out in the scope of intergovernmental agreements, often in the form of international conventions. Legal frameworks United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea: UNCLOS In relation to targets, for instance, improved cooperation among international marine organizations on environmental standards, the decade of the oceans — the s — is considered as a failure DSH ; VanderZwaag , own information; Joiner It reiterated the key principles of sustainable development and introduced seven programme areas for priority action: Integrated management and sustainable development of coastal and marine areas; Marine environmental protection; Sustainable use of marine living resources of the High Seas; Sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources under national jurisdiction; Addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and climate change; Strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination; and Sustainable development of Small Islands Developing States SIDS.
Intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations outside the UN system There are also many intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations NGOs outside the United Nations system that play important roles in promoting global and regional marine-related research and management. Expansion of marine-related organizations and their activities Programmes and activities in the marine sector expanded notably after the UNCED Conference in Rio de Janeiro in with increasing demands on integration across boundaries and sectors.
From pollution prevention to a broader approach Initially, the regional marine environmental conventions and their commissions mainly dealt with marine pollution. New initiatives Also, as a response to the Rio Conference, new organizations turned up with an agenda that the existing organizations already had a mandate to deal with.